COSMOS soil moisture sensor has been inaugurated by Prof. V.K. Gaur, Distinguished Scientist, CSIR Fourth Paradigm Institute, Bangalore & Chairman, Governing Council, IITM on 31 January 2017. A network of field-scale soil moisture monitoring stations across India (COSMOS-India) is being developed under the NERC-MoES program using cosmic-ray soil moisture sensors (CRS). A dedicated Hydrometeorology Research Unit (HMRU) has been set up at the Centre for Climate Change Research (CCCR), IITM to coordinate the development and implementation of observational and modeling activities by involving climate scientists and hydrologists for building knowledge base on water balance components (e.g., soil moisture, evapotranspiration, runoff etc.) for the Indian region.