Climate indicators for lightning over sea, sea-land mixed and land-only surfaces in India
Lightning activity varies with the surface heat flux, Bowen ratio and cloud base height over India. Over Indian land, annual lightning flash counts are found to be more by 32 and 24% than those over IGP and Indian seas, respectively. Total heat flux (sensible + latent) and lightning flash counts show a strong correlation coefficient of 0.75 for Indian land and 0.73 for IGP relative to that of Bowen ratio with lightning flash count. the total heat flux represents the best parameter for describing lightning activity over IGP and Indian land. Bowen ratio ≥1 in pre-monsoon increases lightning flash counts over IGP and Indian land. Cloud base height (a measure of moisture) and lightning flash counts show values in the order as Indian land > Indian seas > IGP.